Muffle furnaces for temperatures from 200-1200°C with controlled atmospheres and vacuum
The «Hot Wall» heating technology for furnace operation under controlled atmosphere and vacuum up to 1200°C is briefly described on the basis of KS-S, a small to medium sized furnace line with chamber volumes from 80 dm³ to 2 m³. Realizable heating- and cooling rates as well as the influence of forced convection and multi zone heating on temperature distribution are discussed. A comparison between the residual oxygen content by fore-vacuum or flushing gas method and brief description of safety devices for operation with explosive gases are also part of this paper.
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